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The District Court also mistakenly credited the defendant alleged nervousness of the reasonable suspicion calculus. Although the trooper asserted that the defendant appeared nervous, his subjective evaluation of the fence behaviors not controlling. Given the fact that the two had never been right before, the trooper lacked any basis to evaluate whether defendant was acting nervous and excited to whether he was merely acting in his normal manner. Indeed, because it is difficult even for skill police officer to evaluate whether a person is acting normally or for them or nervously. The court will protect an officer’s naked assertion of nervousness until is accompanied to the record by specific indicators verifying that the defendants nervousness was extreme.

That confirmation was not present in this case. The the defendant statements that he did not wanted tickets on his lights filing a was found that the search resents number qualifies as extreme nervousness. Is not uncommon for most citizens, whether innocent or guilty, to exhibit signs of nervousness when confronted by law enforcement officer. The defendant someone for his vehicle registration suggested nothing more than mere nervousness.

Once the above factors removed from the original suspicion calculus, with factors that remain hard for his travel plans, arrest record, carrier freshener, and fight a roll down his window completely. The totality of these factors, along with inferences drawn from them, they were insufficient to give an objective officer original suspicion to suspect that the defendant was trafficking drugs. The trooper testified on his suspicions repeat upon approaching the defendants truck and noticing the defendant only person roll down his window. To my with the fact that the defendant rebuffed the trooper’s request open, the trooper suspected that the term was tried a mask the holder of drugs.

The appellate court said that the driver’s actions, however, amount little more than defendant refusing to consent to search of his vehicle. To go without saying that gritting such refusal in the reasonable suspicion calculus would violate the fourth amendment. After all, as the scores richly recognize, if refused consent were basis for original suspicion, nothing will be left for the fourth amendment protections. Most of consent to search could be searched. In most refused consent can be searched as well. Because refusal to consent can play no role in the original suspicion calculus, the district court erred in weighing the defendant’s personal the window in its analysis.

The 10th circuit Court of Appeals is consistently held that the center of air freshener is probably considered as a factor in the probable cause analysis. There is no testimony that the center of air freshener was emanating from the truck. There is no case where the court is held that the mere presence of an air freshener can support reasonable suspicion. Nor that seem to be a distinction without a difference. After all, if inferences that drug traffickers use air freshener semester smell of the drugs they are transporting, then the fact that an officer observes but does not detect the use of an air freshener would seem to counsel against conferring the drugs are present. This means especially true in the case where the nurse all here freshener which works only if activated by its user. In the event, even the scent of air freshener, standing alone is inadequate to support reasonable suspicion without other indicators of criminal activity. The totality of circumstances here make it truly inappropriate to give this factor much way. Not only are there other indicators of criminal activity lacking, but having air freshener is entirely consistent with defendant’s explanation that he was across road trip.

If you’ve had your money seized by law enforcement, you need the best criminal defense attorney Tulsa has to offer. Call the Cale law office at 918-277-4800. Schedule your free initial consultation with attorney Stephen Cale. Attorney Cale has the kind of experience that you need.

The court’s holiness suspicion troughs plans conform an element of response suspicion should not be taken as an invitation to find travel suspicious per se. The defendant told the trooper that he was driving from Missouri to California to visit friends and family. When you press for more details, he said he was going to Los Angeles visibility his friend. The defendant related that he was at the time as any to make cross-country trip because he had recently been laid off from his job at the bank. The trooper asked whether the defendant had taken an interest in away from Missouri, the defendant replied the taken another estate. If the trooper or other law enforcement officer as being a real jackass to you, ask them if you’re free to go. If they say that you are, then leave.

Because it was nothing suspicious about the defendant’s account of his travel plans, reasonable suspicion would’ve warranted only if the plans themselves were impossible suspicious. That means that defense attorney rooms not merely unusual I was sufficiently bizarre to constitute a factor contributing to original suspicion. All seems unlikely that the defense attorney was even unusual, stroll plans were not decidedly insufficiently some is our were impossible to more reasonable suspicion. There’s nothing criminal about traveling by car to view scenery. Under the totality of the circumstances presented here, there was nothing objectively implausible about defense travel itinerary. Visiting with friends and family was reason that to take a trip. His savings and family assistance made up initially attainable. Also, his recently been laid off allowed in the flex building to take the route of his choosing. Call the best criminal defense attorney Tulsa has to offer by dialing 918-277-4800.